Application of OT Foundations
Models and Frames of Reference help shape our thinking when we consider occupational participation and performance. These tools also help our understanding of the roles that environment, context, and motivation can have on engagement, progress, and performance.
Ecology of Human Performance (EHP)
Looks at interactions of humans & environments
Context is key
Context + Person + Task = Performance
Function vs Dysfunction (see image)
The "fit" of person + environment + occupation = performance
Disability is seen as a bad fit of P, E, O equaling poor performance
PEO can maximize or minimize performance opportunities
Function vs dysfunction (see image)
Model of Human Occupation (MOHO)
What drives each person to engage?
What habits, patterns, and routines contribute to this person's identity and competence?
Childhood & Adolescent Development
The outdoors and nature provide ample opportunities for children and adolescents to have fun while improving their abilities and skills across a spectrum of developmental areas. These opportunities are a way to foster fun & creative play and recreation while applying Occupational Therapy principles and understanding.
There are endless possibilities in the outdoors & nature to incorporate gross (big) and/or fine (small) motor movements.
Gross motor: Climbing, hiking, running, cycling, swimming, paddling, archery, horseback riding, fishing, obstacle courses, working with animals, gardening, composting
Fine motor: Gardening, fishing, making a fire, picking berries, fruit, or veggies, making nature art with rocks, sticks, flowers, plants, etc.,
Nature and the outdoors are optimal environments for sensory development:
Vestibular (balance & coordination): Rope swings & courses, rock hopping, trail running, bike riding, log walking, rolling down hills, slackline, climbing walls, outdoor obstacle courses
Proprioceptive (body awareness & spatial relations): Any HEAVY work- climbing, running, jumping, hiking, swimming, rock wall building, wood splitting & stacking, clearing a trail, uneven surface walking, throwing rocks/sticks
Tactile (touch): Walking barefoot, gardening, using dirt, sand, mud, rocks, grass, moss, water to make art, safely handling worms, insects, fish, etc.
Auditory: bird sound, animal noises, running water, leaves rustling, rain, wind, thunder, echoes
Visual perceptual: I-spy, treasure hunts, using binoculars, looking "up close" at bugs/plants vs "far away," bird watching, archery, reading maps
Olfactory (smell): Flowers, trees, dirt/mud, oceans, fish, hay, rain
Oral motor: Trail snacks, outdoor meals, vegetables/fruit/herbs from the garden
Outdoor recreation, activities, play, and camp experiences contribute to:
Confidence building, teamwork skills, improved self-esteem & identity
Leadership skills, healthy communication, social participation
Independence, adventure & exploration skills, peer bonding
Want to know more?
These OTs work in camp and outdoor settings, further defining the roles of OT and establishing the outdoors as an OT practice area.
Camps, Outdoors, Nature, & OT
Nature + Occupational Therapy Ebook